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An intriguing report on the sex and gender of Italian intersex girl Giacoma Foroni.


Foroni was born in a small hamlet near Mantua, Italy, in 1779. Although Foroni possessed both male and female characteristics, she was raised as a girl and believed herself to be one. When she was just under 23 years old she was examined by an Italian scientific committee from the Accademia nazionale virgiliana, authorized by the government.


The present report is the result of that examination. Interestingly, the committee deemed Foroni’s sex to be male, much to her own surprise. Today Foroni’s sex would probably be described as ‘intersex’, to which the translator seems to hint in his foreword (“individus qui n'appartiennent ni à la classe des hommes, ni à la classe des femmes”).


One of Foroni's arguments for being female was the fact that she felt sexually attracted to men. Surprisingly, the committee didn't consider this to be homosexuality, apparently recognizing the distinction between sex and gender.


The text gives a remarkably detailed description of Fornoni’s body; the plates show her dressed as a peasant, her body at full length, as well as her private parts. The report was first published in Italian in the same year as Relazione, riflessioni e giudizio sul sesso di un individuo umano vivente chiamato e conosciuto sotto il nome di Giacoma Foroni.


This French edition is expanded and includes an account by Joseph Sonsis, first published in the Journal de physique de Brugnatelli, of the case of Marie-Christine Zanneboni, illustrated with a full-page plate.


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An early 19th-century case of intersexuality, gender and sex, with 5 plates

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  • Ėtienne Marie Siauve (trans. and ed.).

    Jaqueline Foroni rendue a son veritable sexe ou rapport, reflexions et jugement presentes a l'academie de Mantoue par la classe de medecine sur le sexe d'un individu vivant, connu sou le nom de Jaqueline Foroni.

    Milan, Imprimerie Francaise et Italienne, an 10, (1802). 

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